Brazil

AT A GLANCE

Same Sex
Relations
Legal?

YES

Legal Gender
Recognition
Possible?

YES

LGBTI Orgs
Able to
Register?

YES

Actions Related
to SOGI at
the UN

2016, 2019: Supported Voting IE SOGI
UN LGBTI Core Group, Member

Overview

LGBTIQ people enjoy thorough legal protections in Brazil, however, there are barriers to full LGBTIQ equality. Same-sex marriage has been legal in Brazil since 2013, same-sex couple adoption has been legal since 2010, and there has been a process for legal gender recognition in place since 2009. Although there is no nationwide law banning discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, the local anti-discrimination laws exist in a majority of the country. Brazil is one of five countries which ban “conversion therapy.” Despite these legal protections. Brazil has one of the highest murder rates of LGBTIQ people in the world. Major cities are the center of Brazil’s LGBTIQ community and culture, while simultaneously being the areas with the highest rates of anti-LGBTIQ crimes. LGBTIQ people in rural areas tend to experience more social rejection and stigmatization, but less violence, than LGBTIQ people in cities. Public opinion towards LGBTIQ people is mixed. Brazil is a majority Catholic country and in some social groups there is a strong culture of machismo, in which extreme masculinity is praised and femininity is seen as shameful. These factors lead to a vocal anti-LGBTIQ minority, both in politics and in the general populous. The election of President Bolsonaro has raised concerns among the Brazilian LGBTIQ community, because of his conservative stance and homophobic rhetoric. LGBTIQ groups have reported increased harassment, discrimination, and stigmatization since the election of President Bolsonaro.